Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

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Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, represented as a pyramid with the more basic needs at the bottom[1]

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychologyproposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper “A Theory of Human Motivation” in Psychological Review.[2]Maslow subsequently extended the idea to include his observations of humans’ innate curiosity. His theories parallel many other theories of human developmental psychology, some of which focus on describing the stages of growth in humans. Maslow used the terms “physiological”, “safety”, “belongingness” and “love”, “esteem”, “self-actualization” and “self-transcendence” to describe the pattern that human motivations generally move through.

Maslow studied what he called exemplary people such as Albert Einstein, Jane Addams, Eleanor Roosevelt, and Frederick Douglass rather than mentally ill orneurotic people, writing that “the study of crippled, stunted, immature, and unhealthy specimens can yield only a cripple psychology and a cripple philosophy.”[3]Maslow studied the healthiest 1% of the college student population.[4]

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